Our Services

We like to help you to solve your challenges in the E&P workflow.
Our experience says that each seismic reservoir characterization (SRC) or QI project is different from the previous ones. More often than we like, sparseness, inappropriateness or poor quality of input data prevent a successful outcome of our endeavor. Therefore, it is our philosophy to carry out SRC projects under the following guidelines, providing realistic expectations and save your money in non-promising circumstances

Our Philosophy

  • Careful understanding of your objectives, budget and time frame
  • Phased approach with well-defined milestones and decision points, before the next phase will start
  • Comprehensive input data quality check, preparation and conditioning
  • Selecting the appropriate software to obtain the best results for your problem
  • Feasibility study with a subset of the entire database
  • Full data study only if deemed beneficial for your asset team
  • Detailed reporting of the results
1. Well-to-seismic tie
Well-to-seismic ties are the fundamental building block of almost all SRC projects. In simple words, we calculate a synthetic (seismic) trace from the well log reflectivity and compare it to the seismic trace extracted around the well bore. This allows us to judge the quality of the seismic data and of the well log data. We use the well tie to determine a representative wavelet for further work, for example inversion. The well tie also provides us an optimized time-depth relationship (TDR).
2. Log editing and petrophysical analysis for porosity and lithology
In many SRC projects, it becomes necessary to edit the provided logs (Vp, Vs, Rho, …) for certain artifacts. Often some logs are missing or have gaps, then we try to predict /estimate the missing log values. If not provided, a petrophysical evaluation of porosity and lithology must be carried out.
3. Rock physics analysis
Rock physics analysis leads to information and relationships linking the elastic log data (Vp, Vs, Rho) to the seismic trace amplitudes. We start with an analysis of log data by cross-plotting them in various ways. Rock physics templates are defined, providing e.g. the relation between porosity and acoustic impedance. Fluid and lithology (cementation) substitution is often a key task in rock physics evaluation.
4. Seismic forward modeling
For certain project objectives it can be useful to generate the seismic response (post-stack or pre-stack) of certain scenarios (“what if scenarios”), using the original logs and the synthetized logs together with rock physics templates. This is called seismic forward modeling in contrast to inverse modeling or inversion. Various scenarios such as thickness variations, pore fluid changes and pressure variations can be modeled and compared to measured seismic data.
5. Inversion of post-stack data
Although pre-stack data are quite common nowadays, many interpretation projects still focus on post-stack data. These data can be inverted to the so-called acoustic impedance (affected by Vp and Rho). This type of inversion is called acoustic inversion. There are several guises of inversion, e.g. deterministic or stochastic inversion. Acoustic inversion is often used for porosity determination.
6. AVO analysis of pre-stack data
Pre-stack data (full-fold gathers or offset/angle-range-limited stacks) provide more information than post-stack data. Therefore, these seismic data should be evaluated by AVO/AVA (amplitude variation with offset/angle) analysis techniques. It results in AVO attribute volumes, which can reveal important information about lithology variations and/or pore fluid scenarios. It is often good practice to look for AVO anomalies (in the reflectivity domain), before a pre-stack inversion is done in the layer property domain.
7. Inversion of pre-stack data
Pre-stack data (full-fold gathers or offset/angle-range-limited stacks) provide more information than post-stack data. Therefore, an inversion of these data can give P-wave and S-wave impedance, and in seldom cases also density separately. This type of inversion is called elastic inversion. There are several guises of inversion, e.g. deterministic or stochastic inversion. Elastic inversion is often used for discrimination of various pore fluid distributions (gas, oil, brine).
8. Time-lapse (4D) feasibility, modeling and inversion
Production of reservoirs leads to pressure and saturation changes, which can be evaluated by seismic data. We need two or more 3D seismic data sets measured at different (calendar) times. For a successful time-lapse or 4D project, carefully processed seismic data is mandatory, together with a good understanding of the underlying rock physics of the depletion processes.
9. Seismic fracture characterization via azimuthal variation analysis
Seismic fracture characterization aims at providing information about fracture sets in the subsurface (overburden or reservoir), which is very important for reservoir management and well placement. Seismic anisotropy, due to one or more fracture sets, is the key element of the recorded seismic wavefield, which can be analysed by azimuthal techniques. Carefully processed seismic data is mandatory. Successful projects can be expected for carbonate, tight sand and unconventional reservoirs, where the overburden is simple enough.